The Multi-Ethnic State. The multi-ethnic state may have attained its characteristics through earlier international migrations into an existing state or through the establishment of national boundaries incorporating many ethnic groups. In such states, internal migration creates new and frequently grave problems. As has been said, the modernization process accelerates the internal movement of peoples. As land becomes a commodity to be bought and sold, peasants may move to improve their economic position. People become willing to move from areas of low income to areas of higher income in the hope that they can personnally benefit from these differences. Modern transportation at relatively low fares makes it possible for people to move easily. New opportunities arise both for working in industry or for starting new businesses. New educational institutions may be far off, and a young man, first moving to seek an education, now remains to find a job. Moreover, the people of one region or ethnic community are likely to migrate to places where people from their own community have preceded them, thus starting a process of chain migration. As a group of migrants come to feel that they are living in an alien culture, even though it is within their own nation, they begin to take steps to establish, or at least preserve, their cultural distinctiveness. They may create their own schools, start their own newspapers, convert some of their private family or religious festivities into public ceremonies, start their own mutual benefit societies, or even begin to create their own political institutions. But the same factors which lead the migrant to strengthen his cultural distinctiveness are also at work within the host culture in which he is living. Only a few decades ago, migrants in premodern societies could live as an alien community with little social interaction or conflict with the host culture. Today in a period of universal education, expanding communication, and expanding political participation, it has become increasingly difficult for migrants to remain encapsulated within the host culture. The result is that local inhabitants become antagonistic to the "outsider," even though he belongs to the same nation-state. Migrations in the 19th century to underdeveloped nations in south and southeast Asia, east Africa, and south Africa have led to explosive political problems in the mid-20th century, as nationalism and cultural cohesiveness have grown with increased modernization. The Migrant and His Place of Origin.* Migration also has an effect on the area from which the migrant comes. For one thing, migrants often have continued to play an important role in the struggle for independence on the part of their country of origin. Greek expatriates provided money and recruits for the Greek national struggle against the Ottomans in the 1837 war of independence. Similarly, Czech, Slovak, Italian, and Serb migrants to the *See also Harlcy L. Browning, "Migrant Selectivity and the Growth of Large Cities in Developing Societies," in this volume.g the adaptation of migrants to the city. For a comprehensive review and critique of much of the literature on the political behavior of urban migrants, see (62).